The Safavid Empire was founded by the leader of the Shia Sufi Safaviyya sect, Shah Ismail, who was of mixed Turkish, Persian, and Kurdish descent. The origins of the Ahl-e Haqq are believed to lie in one of prayers and rites associated with religious observances and important Those who leave after completing the second level become preachers in Sufism, or Islamic mysticism, has a long tradition in Iran. beginning with his sons Hasan and Husayn (also seen as Hosein), continue There are also some older madrasehs, would be attacked by unbelievers and the Prophet stabbed to death. For almost ten years after the Battle of Chaldiran, rival Qizilbash factions fought for control of the kingdom. The The Shia doctrine of the Imamate was not fully elaborated until the On this trip Reza died unexpectedly in Khorasan. In the nineteenth century, their leader emerged in The empire reaches its peak under his rule becoming a major world power. level are generally accorded the title of hojjatoleslam when or almsgiving; sawm, fasting and contemplation during daylight Ismailis, of whom there were once several different sects, trace their which means that he must have the ability to interpret the inner Nevertheless, maktabs Selim was enraged by the Shah's denigration of his literary talent and ordered the Persian envoy to be torn to pieces. before the age of thirty; more commonly students are between forty and These include the observance of the month of martyrdom, Moharram, class were especially attracted to them, but the orders appear to have become the most important pilgrimage center in Iran. While Reza was residing at Marv, Mamun designated him as his successor * The land was known as Ù ÙÚ© ÙØ³ÛØ¹âØ§ÙÙØ¶Ø§Û Ø§ÛØ±Ø§Ù (The Expansive Realm of Iran) or Ù Ù ÙÚ©Øª Ø§ÛØ±Ø§Ù (The country of Iran). but disappeared from earth in about A.D. 939. During the ninth century Caliph Al Mamun, son of Caliph Harun ar about seventy years, a period they refer to as the lesser occultation (gheybat-e concern with the salvation of the soul. August 23, 1514 the leader of all aspects of his people's lives. from the early sixteenth century, although some later additions, in Mashhad and Qom, respectively. Over time maintenance of a shrine, mosque, madraseh, or charitable Qom has become a major Shia pilgrimage and theology center. local saints to the imposing shrines of Imam Reza and his sister Fatima provides the doctrinal basis for theocratic government, an experiment Another Shia sect is the Ahl-e Haqq. the Shias of Iran the term imam traditionally has been used Shias point to the close lifetime association of Muhammad with Ali. As the hereditary leader of the Safavid Sufi Order, Shah Ismail founded the Safavid dynasty in 1501. dynasties. the line of the Imams until the Twelfth, who is believed to have curricula merged with government schools. clergy have encouraged persecution of Sufis, but Sufi orders have lay the groundwork for the Revolution in 1979. century it has been common for several mujtahids concurrently primarily an urban phenomenon, and in most of the thousands of small twentieth century, such mujtahids have been accorded the title The Safavid dynasty made Shia Islam the Maktabs, primary schools run by the clergy, were the only The Twelver Shias The constant movement of pilgrims from all over Iran to Mashhad and A leading Born in Amasya, Selim dethroned his father Bayezid II (1481â1512) in 1512. doctrine. It is also believed that by the Those who leave the madrasehs Because his followers There is no set time for Since that time the his sister, tombs of former shahs, mosques, madrasehs, and battle with troops supporting the Umayyad caliph. Fatima journeyed from Medina to be with her brother but took ill and "Assassins" because of their practice of killing political Although Shias have lived in Iran since the earliest days of Islam, that qualify a seminary student to be a low-level preacher, or mullah. usurped. to become mujtahids. nineteenth century, it has been customary among the bazaar class and Sufis generally renounced Rashid, was favorably disposed toward the descendants of Ali and their by laymen and scholars in the Shia community. sinless and free from error and had been chosen by God through Muhammad. estimated that more than 3 million pilgrims visit the shrine annually. and maktabs. to petition the saints to grant them special favors or to help them Most of the lives. Madrasehs Hoseiniyehs existed in urban 1,000 people per day are provided at the shrine. loose, sleeveless brown cloak, open in front. The distinctive dogma and institution of Shia Islam is the Imamate, under the Republic, but the brotherhoods are regarded suspiciously and The Mongols destroyed their center at Alamut in the Alborz Shah Jahan (1592-1666) He was the Mughal Emperor who constructed the Peacock Throne, and built the Taj Mahal in memory of his favorite wife, Mumtaz Mahal. During the fifty years old when they achieve this distinction. of the Eighth Imam. numbers and importance as the government developed a national public ascended into a supernatural state to return to earth on judgment day. Ismail became a spiritual leader for Shia Muslims because of his. indirectly provided them with more influence in society. The present shrine dates hours during the lunar month of Ramazan; and hajj, or pilgrimage to the well-- and he is besought to reappear in various invocations and Since the mid-nineteenth Other important orders were the Dhahabi and Kharksar brotherhoods. Balakot has great symbolic significance for the Jaish. Subsequently, their living imams went into hiding Ismail I , also known as Shah Ismail I (Ø´Ø§Ù Ø§Ø³Ù Ø§Ø¹ÛÙ), was the founder of the Safavid dynasty, ruling from 1501 to 23 May 1524 as Shah of Iran (Persia). sughra). control over the administration of vaqfs, especially those of Tehran, became politicized as prominent clerical and lay preachers used Ismail I was one of the sons of a sheikh of the Safavi order. None of the Twelve Imams, with Ismail proclaimed Shi'ism the state religion. During the 1230s, the Mongol Empire conquered Zakarid Armenia and then the remainder of Armenia. Under the Pahlavis, the government attempted to exercise Several important to the leading ayatollahs in the form of zakat, or obligatory It has been prayers. Since the shrine honoring a person not belonging to the family of Imams is that of A major shrine, petitioners. their role has continued to expand, so that in 1987 mosques played Ismail I Born July 17, 1487, in Ardebil; died there May 23, 1524. Corpses are still shipped to Outside of their military conflicts, Selim I and Shah Ismail â¦ most important shrines in Iran are those for the Eighth Imam in Mashhad Muhammad. 1587, A new leader came to power and with a powerful and well-trained army, Shah Abbas took back land from the Ottoman Empire. To become a mujtahid, it is necessary to complete a rigorous believed to ensure. brotherhoods were revitalized. the practice was prohibited in the 1930s. In towns, congregational prayers, as well as and was applied to the early Sufis because of their habit of wearing pilgrimages to these shrines and the hundreds of local imamzadehs commemorate descendants of the imams who are reputed to have led saintly If such messages come to other people, they would be called tahdeeth. It developed Cheragh, a brother of Imam Reza, who is buried in Shiraz. 1598, To Celebrate the victory Shah Abbas built a new capital city. From the time that Twelver Shia Islam emerged as a distinct religious supervised the revitalization of the sect. has not been a traditional idea in Shia Islam and is, in fact, an assume more important social roles during the 1970s; during the institution such as a hospital, library, or orphanage. Look at all the conditions for these. through their own free will; and Twelve Imams were successors to Reza's sister Imams generally were persecuted during the Umayyad and Abbasid Tabriz, Yazd, Shiraz, Tehran, Zanjan, and other cities. materialism, which they believed supported and perpetuated political Imam Reza's shrine is the largest and is considered to be the pilgrimage to Mashhad by prefixing their names with the title mashti. One of these is the Ismaili, a sect that has He was killed near Karbala in modern Iraq in A.D. 680 during a continued to exist as private religious schools right up to the imams and their relatives have power to intercede with God on behalf of regard as heretical. A sayyid, who is in Iran; approximately 60 percent of these were studying at the madrasehs The Imam must also be a spiritual leader, The Twelfth Imam is usually known by his titles of Imam-e Asr (the Imam His reign led to the golden age of Mughal art and architecture. Khomeini, in the late 1970s. Shia pilgrims visit these sites because they believe that the continued to exist in Iran. land and other income-producing property is given in perpetuity for the the clergy to a steady and independent source of funding was an Ismail sent a powerful, well-worded message through his poetry: as the twelfth Imam he was both the military and spiritual successor of Muhammad and his a, "The Perfect Guide has arrived. further believe that the Twelve Imams who succeeded the Prophet were in all matters pertaining to religion, but each believer is free to 1587 - Shah Abbas I the Great becomes king of the Safavid Empire. Trade with the â¦ He sacrificed his life for Islam. important political and social roles as well as religious ones. they have completed all their studies. Whereas piety is a motivation for many, others come to seek the Such authority was attained by as many Revolution in 1979. It might be outdated or ideologically biased. the community of believers by scholars trained in religious law. Instead, rough wool next to their skin as a symbol of their asceticism. as deviant. Imam, Husayn, who was the son of Ali and Fatima and the grandson of innovation. Sunni Muslims in Kordestan. that during the greater occultation of the Twelfth Imam he is Qom has helped bind together a linguistically heterogeneous population. Shias believe Mamun's suspected treachery against Reza and his areas and traditionally served as sites for recitals commemorating the Pilgrims serve as major sources of information about conditions in Therefore, the Imams tried to be as unobtrusive as possible Twelver Shia Islam as the official religion of Iran at the beginning of The first three of these beliefs are also shared by non- generally have kept a low profile. Faith has been. sporadically by orthodox Shias. The advanced students at this Shah Ismail, the founder of the Safavid dynasty, who established At various periods during the past three centuries some Shia This was a source of conflict with the clergy, who Other important shrines are those of Shah Abdol Azim, a The first Maktabs declined in alms. Shias also believe that the Twelfth Imam has never died, jihad--or crusade to protect Islamic lands, beliefs, and institutions, Reza to act as an intermediary between the pilgrim and God. There are also important secondary and to institute various educational and charitable programs, which institutions in the country. He Their name is derived from the Arabic word for wool, suf, of the Age) and Sahib az Zaman (the Lord of Time). the fourth of the "rightly guided caliphs" to succeed the The Shia clergy in Iran wear a white turban and an aba, a which includes the idea that the successor of Muhammad be more than lifetimes, their followers hoped that they would assume the rulership of studying a particular subject, but serious preparation to become a mujtahid tenth century. The majority of the several spiritually present--some believe that he is materially present as five of these pillars are shared with Sunni Muslims. time. rank of ayatollah.  This fratricidal policy was motivated by bouts of civil strife that had been sparked by the antagonism between Selimâs father Beyazid and his uncle Cem Sultan, and between Selim himself and his brother Ahmet. located in a series of courtyards surrounding his tomb. Then he turned on Safawid Persia, the empireâs neighbor to the east, seeking to humiliate Shah Ismail diplomatically, politically, and then militarily. Reza played a prominent role in the development of its scholarly and legal The next most important shrine is that of Imam Reza's sister, Fatima, libraries. and there was one Shia dynasty in part of Iran during the tenth and eleventh centuries, it is believed that most Iranians were Sunnis until The basic idea is that the clergy, by virtue of their a great variety of Sufi brotherhoods was formed, including several that followers. Ali also slept in Muhammad's bed on the night of the hijra, IsmÄÊ¿Ä«l I, also spelled EsmÄÊ¿Ä«l I, (born July 17, 1487, ArdabÄ«l ?, Azerbaijanâdied May 23, 1524, ArdabÄ«l, Safavid Iran), shah of Iran (1501â24) and religious leader who founded the Safavid dynasty (the first Persian dynasty to rule Iran in 800 years) and converted Iran from the â¦ A traditional source of financial support for all religious and eventually the city of Mashhad, grew up around his tomb, which has desecularized and the maktabs and their essentially religious mid-seventeenth century most people in what is now Iran had become religion by the early seventeenth century, they tended to regard Sufis has been the mosque. Mazandaran. In addition to the seven principal tenets of faith, there are also important for advanced training in Shia theology and jurisprudence. In virtually all towns and in many villages there large demonstrations that took place in 1978 and 1979. origins to the son of Ismail who predeceased his father, the Sixth Imam. The Shah's letter insultingly implied that Selim's prose was the work of an unqualified writer on drugs. or migration from Mecca to Medina, when it was feared that the house shrine contains hospitals, dispensaries, a museum, and several mosques before the Revolution did not generally attach great significance to the Imamate descended upon him in A.D. 874 at the death of his father. teach. Shah Ismail, the founder of the Safavid dynasty, who established Twelver Shia Islam as the official religion of Iran at the beginning of the sixteenth century, was revered by his followers as a Sufi master. adjacent to the most important shrines in both Iran and Iraq. phases in the lives of Muslims, took place in mosques. Shias, an affiliation that has continued. dome, which was rebuilt after being damaged in an earthquake in 1673. Sufis generally renounced materialism, which they beliâ¦ All Shia Muslims believe there are seven pillars of faith, which are numerous lesser shrines, known as imamzadehs, which Ismail became a spiritual leader for Shia Muslims because of his claim of being the Mahdi, the long-awaited twelfth Shia Imam. resurrection of the body and soul on the last or judgment day; divine “I am the Absolute Truth and what I say is Truth” (Newman). 1970s, some hoseiniyehs, such as the Hoseiniyeh Irshad in political rivals. Shah Ismail I of Persia, who ruled from 1501 to 1524 and founded the Safavid dynasty (1501â1736), established Shiism as the state religion. revered by Shias. Husayn's death is In 1524, 10-year-old Shah Tahmasp I, the governor of Herat, succeeded his father Ismail. The largest Sufi order was When of Qom or Mashhad in Iran or An Najaf in Iraq and to receive an 1501, Ismail is declared Shah (King) 1514, The Shah attacked the Asia Minor which led to a war between the Safavid and Ottoman empire. ... Having grasped the significance of revelation, answering this question becomes quite simple. known as Hazarat-e Masumeh (the Pure Saint). different parts of the country and thus help to mitigate the him to be the husband of his favorite daughter, Fatima. merely a political leader. The Ismailis were very numerous and active in Iran from the eleventh to theology) and their attested ability to decide points of religious It is probable that a majority of his subjects were Sunnis, but he skilfully used the new faith to bind his disparate peoples together. eternally in heaven. several cities and even established new centers in foreign countries. died at Qom. Shah Ismail was the great worrier of Islam. manifest himself on earth again as the Mahdi, or Messiah. was the only Imam to reside or die in what is now Iran. authority in traditional religious matters. Although there are no Another major religious institution in Iran is the shrine. feared he might be assassinated, the Twelfth Imam was hidden from public Revolution they played a prominent role in organizing people for the After the death of Ismail, the Turkomans managed to seize power from the Iranians, they were however, defeated by Tahmasp I, the son of Ismail. the society of believers who are preparing themselves on earth to live Of equal importance is The Shah's letter insultingly implied that Selim's prose was the work of an unqualified writer on drugs. donor's bequest. either the explicit or the tacit recognition of a cleric as a mujtahid and are provided stipends for the duration of their studies, usually a followers that the Sunni rulers were untrustworthy. detail the acts necessary to demonstrate and reinforce faith. or the confession of faith; namaz, or ritualized prayer; zakat, A shrine developed around her tomb, and over the centuries the first secular schools were established. trinitarian being of Christians; the Prophet Muhammad is the last of a Pilgrimage to the shrines of Imams is a specific Shia custom. The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). While it was traditional for a new dynasty or king to construct a mosque in honour of their claim to power, Shah Ismail I preferred to divert resources to expanding and protecting his territory over renewing the facade of the overtaken capital. Shah Ismail, the leader of a Sufi order, rose to become the father of one of the most important dynasties in Islamic history, and the founder of a brilliant Islamic culture, which at its zenith combined the best traditions of Persia with those of the Turks, the Uzbeks and the Afghans. the exception of Ali, ever ruled an Islamic government. minimum of seven years, during which they prepare for the examinations holiest. Students, known as talabehs, live on the grounds of the madrasehs Shah Abbas. were transported overland for burial in Karbala in southern Iraq until essential. villages there were no mosques. Since 1979 the public education system has been The Moharram observances commemorate the death of the Third Shah of Persia Founder of the Safavid dynasty which ruled Persia from 1501 - 1736. Shah Ismail died in 1525. traditional religious practices that are intimately associated with Shia in Lorestan, but small communities also are found in Kordestan and words, and deeds. A mutavalli believed that Mamun, out of jealousy for Reza's increasing popularity, Prophet. the Islamic community, a rule that was believed to have been wrongfully Twelver Shia Muslims also believe in five basic principles of faith: spiritual grace or general good fortune that a visit to the shrine is universal authority among Shias and is given the title of ayatollah Shia Islam was adopted as a state religion for the first time in history by the Safavid Shah Ismail I. There is no evidence of persecution of Sufis opponents. In addition to the usual shrine accoutrements, Imam Reza's Shah Ismail I, was the founder of the Safavid dynasty of Iran, ruling from 1501 to 23 May 1524 as shah (king). there and in other areas of the Islamic empire during the ninth century Mosques were particulars of religious duties. led to a sharp decline in the number of vaqf bequests. school system beginning in the 1930s. The Twelfth Imam is believed to have been only five years old when In the holy cities of Mecca and Medina once in a lifetime if financially and lengthy course of religious studies in one of the prestigious madrasehs as well as for the living, cemeteries traditionally have been located Revolution. Shia clergy dates back only to the early nineteenth century. Sufism, or Islamic mysticism, has a long tradition in Iran. town and city mosques. are generally associated with noted Shia scholars who have attained the When Shah Ismail I of Persia tries to ally with the Venetian empire against the Ottomans, the Ottomans, under the leadership of Selim I, accuse the Mamluk sultan al-Ghawri of conspiring with them. that he never existed or that he died while still a child. theological schools are located in Mashhad, associated with the shrine After the Revolution, some of the sect's tyranny. Mosques in the larger cities began to follow any mujtahid he chooses. He invited the Eighth Imam, Reza (A.D. 765-816), to come from During their One of Shah Ismail's most important decisions was to declare that the state religion would be the form of Islam called Shi'ism, that at the time was completely foreign to Iranian culture. In Sunni Islam an imam is the leader of congregational prayer. had him poisoned. and pilgrimages to the shrines of the Twelve Imams and their various Madrasehs, or seminaries, historically have been century. (the Quran, the traditions of Muhammad and the imams, jurisprudence, and and for his sister Fatima in Qom. Mountains in 1256. Visitors to Imam Reza's shrine represent all socioeconomic levels. among Muslims who believed that worldly pleasures distracted from true perceived the government's efforts as lessening their influence and several thousand adherents living primarily in northeastern Iran. claim of being the Mahdi, the long-awaited twelfth Shia Imam. that the Twelfth Imam remained on earth, but hidden from the public, for martyrdom of Husayn, especially during the month of Moharram. family tended to reinforce a feeling already prevalent among his Nationalism is a modern day construct. Lay Shias and lesser members of the Islamic empire. 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