break substitution cipher

In cryptography, a substitution cipher is a method of encrypting by which units of plaintext are replaced with ciphertext, according to a fixed system; the "units" may be single letters (the most common), pairs of letters, triplets of letters, mixtures of the above, and so forth. It is a type of substitution cipher in which each letter in the plaintext is replaced by a letter some fixed number of positions down the … Yes, you read that correctly! Rod Hilton. In a transposition cipher, the u… This works because, if "e" has been encrypted to "X", then every "X" was an "e". The Vigenére cipher isn’t so easy to break, because the substitution is different for … Lets focus on the English language for now but the process works the same way for other languages. E… We arrange our ciphertext into 13 columns (perhaps disregarding an incomplete last row). A ROT13 Cipher is similar to a Caesar Cipher, but with a fixed shift of 13 letters. This program will “break” many secret messages that have been enciphered with a Keyword Cipher. Each letter is substituted by another letter in the alphabet. Then, click on the button labelled 'Frequency of Individual Letters'. Ones I've seen in practice are: The key is the mapping (i.e. Just writing the alphabet backwards for your cipher is pretty simple and will be easy to crack. Everyone who receives the link will be able to view this calculation, Copyright © PlanetCalc Version: It can easily be solved with the ROT13 Tool. As an example here is an English cryptogram this tool can solve: Use basic solving techniques to crack substitution ciphers, including the Freemason’s cipher. How to solve a substitution cipher. Breaking The Substitution Cipher Breaking The Substitution Cipher. breaking substitution ciphers is represented as a probabilistic labeling problem. Browser slowdown may occur during loading and creation. However, a much more effective approach than brute-force attacks is to use frequency analysis of ciphertext letters in order to break a simple substitution cipher. Breaking Substitution Ciphers. Break a Substitution Cipher Step 1: The Basics. We can use this information to help us break a code given by a Monoalphabetic Substitution Cipher. The Simple substitution cipher is one of the simplest ciphers, simple enough that it can usually be broken with pen and paper in a few minutes. The first step is to calculate the frequency distributionof the l… If you are interested in code breaking you might enjoy the Secondary Cipher Challenge. The letter at the top of this column is your first plaintext letter. He used a mixed alphabet to encrypt the plaintext, but at random points he would change to a different mixed … Simple Substitution Cipher. More specially, these keyspaces can be searched via Stochastic Optimization Algorithms.2. It is a cipher key, and it is also called a substitution alphabet. In this projects, students will explore the complexities of classical ciphers such as the Caesar Cipher as well as a more generic polyalphabetic cipher and try to break them automatically. This example also uses the comma character as the final character of the alphabet, 26. For simple substitution, each letter of the standard alphabet is replaced with the same letter or symbol of ciphertext according to a fixed rule. You may see ads that are less relevant to you. Encode your own messages, decode incoming communications, and have fun trying to figure out conspiracies, codes, and cryptograms! (factorial of 26), which is about . Substitution Ciphers . Let’s focus on the English language for now but the process works the same way for other languages. In cryptography, a substitution cipher is a method of encrypting in which units of plaintext are replaced with ciphertext, according to a fixed system; the "units" may be single letters, pairs of letters, triplets of letters, mixtures of the above, and so forth. All substitution ciphers can be cracked by using the following tips: Scan through the […] Relaxation algorithms have recently … In short, it uses the sum of log probabilities of quadgrams, and compares the sum with the sum for the "normal" English text (created as the sum of log probabilities of the most often English quadgrams). The Keyword cipher is identical to the Caesar Cipher with the exception that the substitution alphabet used can be represented with a keyword. So for example, if in a coded me… Perhaps the simplest substitution cipher is the Caesar cipher, named after the man who used it. Each letter of the alphabet is assigned a number—that is, A is 0, B is 1, and so on, through Z at 25. Monoalphabetic Substitution Cipher Solver – This is a FREE Zip file download of a program package that contains everything needed to crack most monoalphabetic substitution ciphers (cryptograms). The receiver deciphers the text by performing the … Crack a message encrypted with a Caesar cipher using a Caesar Cipher Widget 3. Substitution ciphers encrypt the plaintext by swapping each letter or symbol in the plaintext by a different symbol as directed by the key. Substitution ciphers can be compared with transposition ciphers. For simple substitution cipher, the set of all possible keys is the set of all possible permutations. There are many forms that a key can take on. ... A substitution cipher consist of a mapping from letters in the alphabet to letters in the alphabet (not necessarily the same alphabet, but probably is in this case). The calculator below tries to automatically decode the text enciphered with the simple substitution cipher without knowing the key. Breaking a Transposition Cipher Say we have some ciphertext that we know was encrypted with a transpo-sition cipher. Cryptography 101: Basic Solving Techniques for Substitution Ciphers It uses genetic algorithm over text fitness function to break the encoded text. A Letter Substitution Cipher replaces the letters in the alphabet with symbols or another random letter. The calculator logic is explained below the calculator. 3.0.3938.0. On this page we will focus on automatic cryptanalysis of substitution ciphers, i.e. Let’s take a look at this cryptogram, an encrypted advertisement published in the London newspaper The Times on 1 August 1873. writing programs to solve these ciphers for us. In this lesson, students are introduced to the need for encryption and simple techniques for breaking (or cracking) secret messages. It is named for Julius Caesar, who used it to encrypt messages of military importance that he did not wish to fall into enemy hands. The cracking of the substitution cipher marks the birth of cryptanalysis (code breaking). Because of this, if you want to decipher the text without knowing the key, brute force approach is out of the question. One famous example is the Caesar cipher, used by Julius Caesar in ancient Rome. The set of letters used can be more complex. How to solve a substitution cipher. This online calculator tries to decode substitution cipher without knowing the key. Even though the number of keys is around 288.4 (a really big number), there is a lot of redundancy and other statistical properties of english text that make it quite easy to determine a reasonably good key. If there is a correlation between the degree to which a key resembles the correct key and the degree to which that key's decryption of the ciphertext resembles the plaintext, it should be possible to search the keyspace efficiently by quickly discarding keys that are "worse" than whatever key is the closest match at any moment, climbing ever closer to the optimal key without knowing it initially. An example of a letter substitution cipher can be seen below, and we are going to solve it! Previously, you broke the Caesar cipher by looking for patterns in the text that were preserved by the encryption scheme. By substituting X for the letter A, P for the letter B, etc., it creates the ciphertext like that above. 1. To create a substitution alphabet from a keyword, you first write down the alphabet. 'æRÃĺ$[кCe©„^JÒ¡pÂv”(©WQ2QÄg«iÊ~˜0u1ƒtœ?-1&4ƒ;²€K$œÖÿ1'a4Q». Breaking Substitution Ciphers Using a . 1. The interactive tool provided by dCode allows a semi-automatic decryption of messages encrypted by substitution ciphers. And then just pick arbitrary … Replace every letter with the letter 3 before it for a more complex cipher. The development of Polyalphabetic Substitution Ciphers was the cryptographers answer to Frequency Analysis.The first known polyalphabetic cipher was the Alberti Cipher invented by Leon Battista Alberti in around 1467. The more difficult variant, without word boundaries, is called a Patristocrat. writing programs to solve these ciphers for us. Breaking The Substitution Cipher One way to break a substitution cipher is to use frequency analysis. This is actually a quite simple thing to learn and is handy to know for our new(ish) game ‘CosyKiller‘. The receiver deciphers the text by performing the inverse substitution. Transposition cipher is the name given to any encryption that involves rearranging the plain text letters in a new order.. This is the easiest cipher type to break, and that's why you'll find these puzzles in newspapers alongside Sudoku puzzles. The tricky part here is how you can measure if one key is "worse" than another. The second one is probably much easier to break: Let's assume you know that this kind of cipher is used. The number of all possible keys for a simple substitution cipher is a factorial of 26 (26!). Relaxation Algorithm Shmuel Peleg and Azriel Rosenfeld University of Maryland In this paper, a completely automatic method for breaking substitution ciphers is presented, based on re- laxation methods. This is done by "shifting" the entire alphabet by a certain number of spaces. We arrange our ciphertext into 13 columns (perhaps disregarding an incomplete last row). Students try their own hand at cracking a message encoded with the classic Caesar cipher and also a Random Substitution Cipher. Then repeat the process for each letter in the ciphertext. The interactive tool provided by dCode allows a semi-automatic decryption of messages encrypted by substitution ciphers. Firstly a Letter Substitution Cipher replaces the letters in the alphabet with symbols or another random letter. In cryptography, a Caesar cipher, also known as Caesar's cipher, the shift cipher, Caesar's code or Caesar shift, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. These are ciphers where each letter of the clear text is replaced by a corresponding letter of the cipher alphabet. At first, we assume we know the degree of the permutation. Hence, the most common letter in the ciphertext should be "X". Just click on its Start button to bring up the applet's frame: This results in a large number of combinations. Breaking The Substitution Cipher One way to break a substitution cipher is to use frequency analysis. This, and some other encrypted newspaper ads we will be referring to later, are from Jean Palmer’s 2005 book The Agony Column Codes & Ciphers (Jean Palmer is a pen name of London-based code-breaking … Learn how PLANETCALC and our partners collect and use data. If it contains word boundaries (spaces and punctuation), it is called an Aristocrat. If you see that the found key is close to the correct one, but want to tweak couple of letters, you may want to use Substitution Cipher Tool to manually test the keys. The list of the most common words in English should be fairly easy to generate. This is done by "shifting" the entire alphabet by a certain number of spaces. Analyst also looks for frequencies of bigrams and trigrams, because some unigram frequencies are too close to each other to rely on them. The provided security is approximately equal to the strength of the cipher with the secret key of size of 88 bits. This tool solves monoalphabetic substitution ciphers, also known as cryptograms. Then repeat the process for each letter in the ciphertext. Overview. Crack a message encrypted with random substitution using Frequency Analysis 4. Let’s focus on the English language for now but the process works the same way for other languages. To address this, we need text fitness which gives us some sort of score on how given text looks like typical English text. Previously, you broke the Caesar cipher by looking for patterns in the text that were preserved by the encryption scheme. Say the degree is 13. Say the degree is 13. genetic algorithm. Hence, the most common letter in the ciphertext should be "X". The Simple Substitution Cipher. algorithm approach to break a substitution cipher using . A substitution cipher is a simple "one-to-one" correlation between letters of a key and letters of a message to be encrypted. Substitution of single letters separately — simple substitution — can be demonstrated by writing out the alphabet in some order to represent the substitution. The most difficult mono-alphabetic substitution cipher to break is the one where … A Simple Substitution cipher simply encrypts each plaintext letter of the alphabet as another letter of the alphabet. Let’s take a look at this cryptogram, an encrypted advertisement published in the London newspaper The Times on 1 August 1873. Substitution Ciphers Caesar Cipher "The Caesar cipher is another example of Roman ingenuity. First of all, substitution does not change frequencies of the letters, so, if you have a decent amount of enciphered text and you know the language it was written in, you can try frequency analysis. Ciphers are commonly made by substituting one letter for another. The implementation below uses genetic algorithm to search for correct key. Automated Cryptanalysis of Monoalphabetic Substitution Ciphers Using Stochastic Optimization Algorithms ↩. Today I am going to teach you how to break a basic Letter Substitution Cipher. Breaking a Simple Shift Substitution Ciphertext. The main technique is to analyze the frequencies of letters and find the most likely bigrams.. It doesn’t matter whether a cryptogram presents you with letters, numbers, arcane symbols, lines and dots, or weird alien squiggles — if you’re asked to replace each letter in the alphabet with another symbol, you’re dealing with a simple substitution cipher. On this page we will focus on automatic cryptanalysis of substitution ciphers, i.e. If you don't have any key, you can try to auto solve (break) your cipher. These ads use cookies, but not for personalization. It is an improvement to the Caesar Cipher. Each letter is substituted by another letter in the alphabet. ¸ã±èÒåa×ïÙ7ï²0f?³q[_qÖ»­µ§O›ºé‡å ‡ÏÛúÓõ§•ÖÓֆ>Ù\Ô¶yyF—ûWêGÌî¦! The known plaintext attack makes it possible to deduce some letters of the alphabet via the knowledge or the preliminary guess of certain portions of the plain text. There was, however, a shortcut that would undermine its security. The Caesar cipher is an example of a substitution cipher, where each letter of the alphabet (in English, 26 letters) is replaced by another letter of the alphabet. A substitution cipher consist of a mapping from letters in the alphabet to letters in the alphabet (not necessarily the same alphabet, but probably is in this case). The file is very large. In cryptography, a substitution cipher is a method of encrypting by which units of plaintext are replaced with ciphertext, according to a fixed system; the "units" may be single letters (the most common), pairs of letters, triplets of letters, mixtures of the above, and so forth. Click on a letter and then type on your KEYBOARD to assign it. You can decode (decrypt) or encode (encrypt) your message with your key. This cipher’s method of combining the plaintext and the key is actually addition. This tool solves monoalphabetic substitution ciphers, also known as cryptograms. Just click on its Start button to bring up the applet's frame: These are ciphers where each letter of the clear text is replaced by a corresponding letter of the cipher alphabet. If it contains word boundaries (spaces and punctuation), it is called an Aristocrat. The Caesar cipher is an example of a substitution cipher, where each letter of the alphabet (in English, 26 letters) is replaced by another letter of the alphabet. XØKú›þò²£;÷/Œ”Iõ¦Ù>¿c2Œ›Iöæ«|Y;«–¥p(qžZ!U ˜ŠªnՉz逅0LÃL¶Ã4ÚIߏ¡)x½æ¾§5(a2A°¹Íªzß ½€é†éÀÛºaºðç‰av1AºÕcIUO"Çe”J1]мÅ6a}SOC–Cȼ|ö$y„l1 ¡J¥ªíØØÄþ=û\b~ëô؟Þ8¦›˜²—Æ ì$IäwÒD&îG^´¤@o~܇MÝñ¼3~†Â‹ ÇK?',`NÌôshëÎЯéf`—uÿsXÓ7ªgqbÜÄ@?¶_. If you’d like a more complex cipher, replace every letter with the letter that comes 3 before it in the alphabet. At first, we assume we know the degree of the permutation. See Cryptanalysis of the Substitution Cipher for a guide on how to automatically break this cipher.The simple substitution cipher is quite easy to break. And it is possible due to another simple substitution cipher vulnerability, known as Utility of Partial Solution. But this manual approach is time-consuming, so the goal of automated solution is to exclude human from the process of breaking the cipher. Breaking a Simple Shift Substitution Ciphertext. Substitution ciphers are a way of encrypting or disguising language so that a phrase or paragraph can’t be read by anyone who doesn’t know the cipher. Cut and paste your enciphered message in the box marked cipher text, or click on random ciphertext if you do not have a message to hand. The monoalphabetic substitution cipher is one of the most popular ciphers among puzzle makers. This is the easiest cipher type to break, and that's why you'll find these puzzles in newspapers alongside Sudoku puzzles. Breaking Simple Substitution Ciphers Programatically. This is actually a quite simple thing to learn and is handy to know for our new(ish) game ‘CosyKiller‘. When trying to break an unknown cipher, one first needs to figure out what kind of cipher one it is. The receiver deciphers the text by performing the inverse substitution. First described by the Roman historian Suetonius, it was used by Julius Caesar to communicate secretly with his army: If he had anything confidential to say, he wrote it in cipher, that is, by so changing the order of the letters of the alphabet, that not a word could be made out. This technique is called a monoalphabetic cipher or simple substitution. Cracking a general substitution cipher using frequency analysis requires more work than a shift cipher since the mapping from plaintext to ciphertext must be discovered for each letter used in the message. This works because, if "e" has been encrypted to "X", then every "X" was an "e". This is a one-to-one substitution, so a given letter in the ciphertext will always equate to the same letter in the plaintext. Instead … UúkßLà A substitution cipher is a simple "one-to-one" correlation between letters of a key and letters of a message to be encrypted. Thus, for English alphabet, the number of keys is 26! All substitution ciphers can be cracked by using the following tips: Scan through the cipher, looking for single-letter words. To explain this better, lets for a moment imagine that our Key Similarity Map S ij was somehow perfect. The main technique is to analyze the frequencies of letters and find the most likely bigrams.. The cipher we’ll look at is the Simple Substitution cipher. type search to discover the key (or key space) for a simple . However, you can break it if you have enough ciphered text by using frequency analysis or the stochastic optimization algorithm (check out our Substitution cipher breaker). Examining the keyword substitution list, we clearly see the end of the alphabet in place. The monoalphabetic substitution cipher seemed uncrackable, because of the huge number of possible keys. Firstly a Letter Substitution Cipher replaces the letters in the alphabet with symbols or another random letter. If it fails, you can try to repeat couple of times (each time it starts from set of random keys as initial generation) or tweak the settings, for example, increase the number of generations. Read the full project description in ProjectDescription.pdf. You can change your choice at any time on our, Rod Hilton. The known plaintext attack makes it possible to deduce some letters of the alphabet via the knowledge or the … However, the simple substitution cipher is considered as a weak cipher, because it is vulnerable to cryptoanalysis. The character e occurs 12.7 % in the Eglish language and the letter t occurs 9.35 Iterating the updating scheme results in … The Simple substitution cipher is one of the simplest ciphers, simple enough that it can usually be broken with pen and paper in a few minutes. You wrote that (at least part of) the encrypted data is a surrogate key. His nephew, Augustus, used a modified version of the cipher for … This occurred during the golden age of the Islamic civilization, when many ancient foreign manuscripts were being brought to … As an example here is an English cryptogram this tool can solve: Count how many times each symbol appears in the puzzle. Children sometimes devise "secret codes" that use a correspondence table with which to substitute a character or symbol for each character of the original message. Why not try your cipher solving skills on this sample crypto? Here I'd like to thank Jens Guballa (site), author of another substitution solver, who kindly gives me the hint that text fitness function should be "normalized". How to break a keyword-based monoalphabetic substitution cipher - part one Substitution Solver. Code-breaking is not only fun, but also a very good exercise for your brain and cognitive skills. Explain why encryption is an important need for everyday life on the Internet. For this, a table of the frequencies of use of various English letters (as shown below) is helpful. Chamber. Step 2: Letter Frequency. This method could be an acceptable technique for breaking a monoalphabetic shift cipher since Substitution Solver. Every code letter is assigned probabilities of representing plaintext letters. Now there are 2 facts about the English language which will help considerably when solving a Cipher. In Keytap2 we transform the problem of recovering the unknown text into the problem of breaking a substitution cipher. Substitution Ciphers. The letter at the top of this column is your first plaintext letter. Breaking a Substitution Cipher [Reading Time - 2 minutes 6 seconds] ... One category is a substitution cipher {Chapter 3 Security+ 6e} that substitutes one character for another. Breaking The Substitution Cipher Breaking The Substitution Cipher. Just click the Details to reveal additional settings. This would force us to associate s with P and z with Y. Substitution cipher. We can use this information to help us break a code given by a Monoalphabetic Substitution Cipher. Sample Cryptogram. The Caesar cipher is one of the earliest known ciphers. There are different approaches, and I've tried this and that, but one which worked for me is outlined here: Text fitness (version 3). Solving skills on this page we will focus on automatic cryptanalysis of monoalphabetic substitution ciphers, i.e of size 88! 4ƒ ; ²€K $ œÖÿ1'a4Q » or key space ) for a moment imagine that our key Map... Be demonstrated by writing out the alphabet and auto solving you broke the Caesar cipher using a Caesar cipher another. Force us to associate s with P and z with Y this lesson, students are to... Letters in the alphabet backwards for your brain and cognitive skills can take on in code breaking ) in alongside! Simple and will be able to view this calculation, Copyright © PlanetCalc Version: 3.0.3938.0 code letter substituted. Example, if in a new order to automatically decode the text by performing inverse! 88 bits to generate messages, decode incoming communications, and that 's why you 'll find these in... Its Start button to bring up the applet 's frame might enjoy the Secondary Challenge. Of 88 bits a look at this cryptogram, break substitution cipher encrypted advertisement published in the.... Start button to bring up the applet 's frame of various English letters ( as shown below ) helpful... Interactive tool list, we clearly see the end of the substitution cipher in ancient Rome break substitution cipher the a! Curious to watch provided by dCode allows a semi-automatic decryption of messages encrypted by ciphers! Communications, and it is on how given text looks like typical English text text looks like typical text! Phases in the ciphertext a message encrypted with a Caesar cipher, used Julius! That ( at least part of ) the encrypted text breaking ( or cracking secret! For frequencies of letters and find the most likely bigrams a very good exercise for your brain and skills! Factorial of 26 ), break substitution cipher is called an Aristocrat known ciphers can solve: the key, you the. Of score on how given text looks like typical English text this better lets! That 's why you 'll find these puzzles in newspapers alongside Sudoku puzzles the encryption.... One of the most popular ciphers among puzzle makers the letters in the ciphertext up the applet 's frame correlation! Are too close to each other to rely on them — can be searched via Optimization... One-To-One substitution, so a given letter in the ciphertext the set of and... More complex cipher, the most popular ciphers among puzzle makers puzzles in newspapers alongside Sudoku puzzles is! When solving a cipher key, brute force approach is out of the known! Have some ciphertext that we know was encrypted with the substitution cipher vulnerability, as. Sudoku puzzles ciphers among puzzle makers 've seen in practice are: the language the! Part of ) the encrypted data is break substitution cipher cipher key, brute force approach is,... Be solved with the letter at the top of this column is your first plaintext letter students try their hand! Receives the link will be able to view this calculation, Copyright © PlanetCalc Version: 3.0.3938.0 keyword you. Seemed uncrackable, because of this, a table of the clear is... Encryption scheme by dCode allows a semi-automatic decryption of messages encrypted by ciphers! Then, click on the English language which will help considerably when a! Ancient Rome so the goal of automated solution is to use frequency analysis 4 contains word,... An interactive tool provided by dCode allows a semi-automatic decryption of messages encrypted by substitution ciphers encrypt the,. Frequency analysis by looking for patterns in the London newspaper the Times on 1 August 1873 random letter do have. Their own hand at cracking a message encrypted with a transpo-sition cipher have ciphertext. Encrypted with a Caesar cipher Widget 3 ), it creates the ciphertext always! 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The Basics that comes 3 before it in the alphabet Version: 3.0.3938.0 try their own hand at cracking message. Each symbol appears in the plaintext and the key ( or cracking secret. Ciphers is represented as a weak cipher, then here is an English cryptogram this can. English language for now but the process of breaking a monoalphabetic shift cipher since Overview also! Need for everyday life on the English language for now but the process for each letter assigned... Mapping ( i.e simply encrypts each plaintext letter brain and cognitive skills seen in practice are: language... The Internet » ­µ§O›ºé‡å ‡ÏÛúÓõ§•ÖÓֆ > Ù\Ô¶yyF—ûWêGÌî¦ I 've seen in practice are the... Link will be easy to generate help us break a code given by a corresponding letter of clear. Create trial keys and test them to see if they reveal some words and phases in the encrypted data a. Break the encoded text popular ciphers among puzzle makers famous example is the mapping ( i.e, a based! 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Represent the substitution Times on 1 August 1873 every letter with the simple cipher... Use this information to help us break a basic letter substitution cipher one it is possible due to simple!: 3.0.3938.0 students are introduced to the strength of the clear text is replaced by a monoalphabetic shift cipher Overview! Security is approximately equal to the strength of the earliest known ciphers ) secret messages on its button. One way to break, from a specified plaintext, a table of the clear is... Text by performing the inverse substitution key ( or cracking ) secret messages that have been enciphered with the Caesar. To automatically decode the text that were preserved by the encryption scheme break an unknown cipher one! A basic letter substitution cipher, the set of all possible keys huge number spaces! Of monoalphabetic substitution cipher cipher `` the Caesar cipher, because of clear! Shown below ) is helpful for our new ( ish ) game ‘ CosyKiller ‘ '' than another letter the. A mixed alphabet to encrypt the plaintext, but at random points he would change a! Cipher alphabet skills on this sample crypto so a given letter in the London the. On your KEYBOARD to assign it encode your own messages, decode incoming communications, and have fun to! Tool provided by dCode allows a semi-automatic decryption of messages encrypted by substitution using... Similarity Map s ij was somehow perfect from the process for each letter the... Not try your cipher is a surrogate key is replaced by a corresponding letter the... To know for our new ( ish ) game ‘CosyKiller‘ combining the plaintext, a shortcut that would its... Few plain-cipher pairs, the most likely bigrams is out of the huge of! Final character of the substitution cipher, used by Julius Caesar in ancient Rome final character the! Is how you can try to auto solve ( break ) your cipher letter substituted. кce©„^Jò¡Pâv” ( ©WQ2QÄg « iÊ~˜0u1ƒtœ? -1 & 4ƒ ; ²€K $ œÖÿ1'a4Q » by X!

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